Hepatitis B

Cover image: This transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image revealed the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) particles (orange). The round virions, which measure 42nm in diameter, are known as Dane particles.


  • HBV is a DNA virus, belonging to the HEPADNAVIRIDAE family.
  • It causes hepatitis, which can Acute Hepatitis or Chronic Hepatitis.
  • It can lead to serious complications like- cirrhosis and HCC (Hepatocellular carcinoma).


  • Hepatitis B prevalence is highest in the WHO Western Pacific Region and the WHO African Region, where 6.2% and 6.1% of the adult population is infected respectively. 
  • In the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, the WHO South-East Asia Region and the WHO European Region, an estimated 3.3%, 2.0% and 1.6% of the general population is infected, respectively. And in the WHO Region of the Americas, 0.7% of the population is infected.

Route of transmission

  • Sexual route.
  • Vertical transmission from mother to child.
  • Blood and blood product transfusion.
  • Through contaminated syringes and needles in I.V drug abusers.
  • Needle-stick injuries in health care workers.

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